Research

IÉSEG School of Management, through ICOR, encourages and supports research-related initiatives addressing the analysis of business and society relationships and relating to ethics, social responsibility and sustainability in a business context. In this line, ICOR members mostly develop research activities across three broad axes:

1. Business and its relationships with society: A business-oriented focus

Along this axis, IÉSEG researchers develop efforts to understand the strategic, organisational and operational implications of the adoption a social responsibility and/or sustainability-oriented, values-driven paradigm by business organizations. In this line of research, ICOR researchers mostly study the development of values-based and stakeholder-oriented management models; social responsibility and sustainability strategy design and development processes; organisational learning, development and change for social responsibility and sustainability; social and environmental accounting practices; organizational justice and the human impact of organizational life; and responsible leadership practices.

2. Business and its relationships with society: A society-oriented focus

Along this second axis, ICOR researchers focus on understanding the role of societal actors and business organizations’ external stakeholders in the development of socially responsible and sustainability-oriented business practices. These research efforts include in this perspective the study of stakeholder influence tactics and strategies; the consideration of anti-corporate social movements; and analysis of the role of business schools in developing more responsible business practices.

3. Business and its relationships with society: An interaction and collaboration focus

Finally, in line with the idea according to business organisations must constructively interact and engage with their internal and external stakeholders in order to walk the social responsibility and sustainability talk, ICOR members across different departments study social responsibility- and sustainability-related reporting and communication strategies and their impact on stakeholders; social responsibility- and sustainability-related identity management practices; stakeholder dialogue processes; cross-sector social partnerships; and social innovation processes.

The research expertise of ICOR members is reflected by their growing record of publications.

Research Seminars

ICOR runs research seminars that are open to all academics, including researchers who are not part of IESEG School of Management or Université Catholique de Lille. Launched at the end of 2014, these seminars cover a wide range of topics related to business and society relationships and attract guest speakers from the School and other French and international experts from the field. These seminars provide academics with a platform to meet and discuss the latest topics in business and society relationships.

FIND SEMINARS LISTED ON THE NEWS & EVENTS PAGE

Conferences and Colloquiums

Next to ICOR research seminars, ICOR and its members contribute to the organization and hosting of wider research events in France and abroad.
FIND CONFERENCES AND COLLOQUIUMS LISTED ON THE NEWS & EVENTS PAGE

Publications

 

  • Abela M., (2022), A new direction? The ‘mainstreaming’ of sustainability reporting, Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, 13(4), pp. 1-23
  • Bayle-Cordier J., Rouvelin P., Savoli A., Vieira da Cunha J., (2022), An Integrative Model of Corporate Mindfulness: A Systematic Literature Review, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences – Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 39(2), pp. 199-212
  • Belkhouja M., Yoon H., Maon F., (2022), Tell me where you belong, I might cite your work: Affiliation origins, legitimation efforts, and the citation of team-produced research in business and management scholarship, M@n@gement, 25(1), pp. 49-65
  • Castillo M., (2022), Managing Corporate Social Responsibility through social learning, Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 2022(2022), pp. 1-12
  • de Bakker F., Bapuji H., Brown J., Higgins C., Rehbein K., Spicer A., (2022), From the Editors: Introducing Impact, Business & Society, 61(4), pp. 791-794
  • De Kerviler G., Slavich B., Ardelet C., (2022), Ethical judgment of sexual ads featuring women: the role of identification to feminine archetype, Journal of Business Research, 142(March), pp. 899-913
  • Goethals F., Ziegelmayer J., (2022), Anxiety Buffers and the Threat of Extreme Automation: A Terror Management Theory Perspective, Information Technology and People, 35(1), pp. 96-118
  • Ligonie M., (2022), Sharing sustainability through control activities, Strategic Finance, 103(10), pp. 21-22
  • Seremani T. W., Farias C., Clegg S., (2022), New Order and Old Institutions: South Africa and the Institutional Work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Organization Studies, 43(4), pp. 573– 593

  • Coulaty B., Roussel-Sargis C., (2021), Piloter l’engagement des travailleurs dans l’espace et le temps, nouveau défi du leadership, Harvard Business Review online, mai 2021
  • Di Benedetto C. A., Lindgreen A., Belkhouja M., Yoon D. H., Maon F., Nunkoo R., (2021), Examining the evolution of citations and team composition in Industrial Marketing Management, Industrial Marketing Management, 97(1), pp. A14-A19
  • de Vaujany F. X., Leclercq-Vandelannoitte A., Munro I., Nama Y., Holt R., (2021), Control and Surveillance in Work Practice: Cultivating Paradox in ‘New’ Modes of Organizing, Organization Studies, 42(5), pp. 675-695
  • Eskandarpour M., Dejax P., Péton O., (2021), Multi-Directional Local Search for Sustainable Supply Chain Network Design, International Journal of Production Research, 59(2), pp. 412-428
  • Farias C., Seremani T. W., Fernández P., (2021), Popular Culture, Moral Narratives and Organizational Portrayals: A Multimodal Reflexive Analysis of a Reality Television Show, Journal of Business Ethics, 171(2), pp. 211-226
  • Gardinier E., Debrulle J., (2021), Beware the politically skilled maverick: Political skill interacts with maverickism to predict unethical decision-making, Management Decision, 59(8), pp. 1990-2004
  • Graafland J., de Bakker F., (2021), Crowding in or crowding out? How non-governmental organizations and media influence intrinsic motivations towards corporate social and environmental responsibility, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 64(13), pp. 2386-2409
  • Kickul J., Mitra P., Weaver R., Orr J., Winkler C., (2021), Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Social Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, forthcoming(forthcoming), pp. 1-6
  • Leclercq-Vandelannoitte A., (2021), Seeing to be seen: The manager’s political economy of visibility in new ways of working, European Management Journal, 39(5), pp. 605-616
  • Leclercq-Vandelannoitte A., (2021), The new paternalism? The workplace as a place to work—and to live, Organization, 28(6), pp. 949–975
  • Maon F., Swaen V., De Roeck K., (2021), Corporate branding and corporate social responsibility: Toward a multi-stakeholder interpretive perspective,Journal of Business Research, 126(March), pp. 64-77
  • Mariano S., Awazu Y., (2021), I Hear You: Unpacking Common Knowledge in the Context of Organizational Meetings, Journal of Knowledge Management, 25(10), pp. 2567-2592
  • Mazza P., Wang S., (2021), Corporate legal insider trading in China: performance and determinants, International Review of Law and Economics, 68(na), pp. 106024
  • Munten P., Vanhamme J., Maon F., Swaen V., Lindgreen A., (2021), Addressing Tensions in Coopetition for Sustainable Innovation: Insights from the Automotive Industry, Journal of Business Research, 136(November), pp. 10-20
  • Stervinou S., Bayle-Cordier J., Narvaiza L., Aragon C., Iturrioz C., (2021), Exploring the Interplay between context and enterprise purpose in participative social entrepreneurship: the perceptions of worker cooperative entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development
  • Swaen V., Demoulin N., Pauwels-Delassus V., (2021), Impact of customers’ perceptions regarding corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility in the grocery retailing industry: The role of corporate reputation, Journal of Business Research, 131(July), pp. 709-721
  • Toivonen A., Seremani T. W., (2021), The enemy within: The legitimating role of local elites in the global managerial colonization of the Global South, Organization, 28(5), pp. 798-816
  • Vakkayil J., (2021), Governance Settlements and Transitions in Indigenous Areas of Limited Statehood: The Case of Coalmining in Meghalaya, Business & Society, 60(7), pp. 1643– 1674
  • Vallaster C., Maon F., Lindgreen A., Vanhamme J., (2021), Serving multiple masters: The role of micro-foundations of dynamic capabilities in addressing tensions in for-profit hybrid organizations, Organization Studies, 42(6), pp. 911-947
  • van Hille I., De Bakker F., Groenewegen P., Ferguson J., (2021), Strategizing Nature in Cross-Sector Partnerships: Can Plantation Revitalization Enable Living Wages?, Organization and Environment, 34(2), pp. 175-197

  • Bapuji H., Brown J., De Bakker F., Higgins C., Rehbein K., Spicer A., (2020), From the editors, Business & Society, 59(1), pp. 3-4
  • Bapuji H., De Bakker F., Brown J., Higgins C., Rehbein K., Spicer A., (2020), Business and Society Research in Times of the Corona Crisis, Business & Society, 59(6)
  • De Bakker F., Matten D., Spence L., Wickert C., (2020), The Elephant in the Room: The Nascent Research Agenda on Corporations, Social Responsibility, and Capitalism, Business & Society, 59(7), pp. 1295-1302
  • Farias C., Sauce L., (2020), Guest editorial: Entrepreneurship, alternative practices, and the (dis)organization of cultural and institutional arrangements, Society and Business Review, 15(4), pp. 297-303
  • Laguecir A., Kern A., Kharoubi C., (2020), Management accounting systems in institutional complexity: Hysteresis and boundaries of practices in social housing, Management Accounting Research, 49(100715), pp. 1-14
  • Laguecir A., Chapman C., Kern A., (2020), Profitability calculations under trial of strength: Insights into intra-accounting variation in a social housing organization, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 33(4), pp. 727-751
  • Parrotta P., Jochem A., Valletta G., (2020), The impact of the 2002 reform of the EU leniency program on cartel outcomes, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 71
  • Rehbein K., Leonel R., Den Hond F., De Bakker F., (2020), How do firms that are changing the world engage politically?, Rutgers Business Review, 5(2), pp. 203-225
  • van Hille I., De Bakker F., Ferguson J., Groenewegen P., (2020), Cross-sector partnerships for sustainability: How mission-driven conveners drive change in national coffee platforms, Sustainability
  • Yapici Herrmann N., Hudson B. A., (2020), Mobilizing scandal to stop a deal: The politicization of cross-border M&As, Journal of International Management, 26(2020), pp. 100759
  • Munten P., Vanhamme J., Swaen V., (2020), Réduire les pratiques d’obsolescence du point de vue des systèmes produit–service orientés produit : un agenda de recherche, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 36(2), pp. 45-80

  • Barberá-Tomás D., Castelló-Molina I., De Bakker F., Zietsma C., (2019), Energizing through visuals: How social entrepreneurs use emotion-symbolic work for social change, Academy of Management Journal, 62(6), pp. 1789-1817
  • Bruneel J., Cherchye L., (2019), Data envelopment analysis and social enterprises: analysing performance, strategic orientation, and mission drift, Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), pp. 325–341
  • Byrne J., Abbas A., Jackman L., Galloway L., (2019), ‘Gender, Intersecting Identities, and Entrepreneurship Research: An Introduction to a Special Section on Intersectionality’, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 25(8), pp. 1703-1705
  • Crane A., De Bakker F., Henriques I., Husted B., (2019), Taking stock at Business & Society: Reflections on our tenure as co-editors, 2015-2019., Business & Society, 58(8), pp. 1483-1495
  • De Bakker F., Crane A., Henriques I., Husted B., (2019), Publishing interdisciplinary research in Business & Society, Business & Society, 58(3), pp. 443-452
  • De Bakker F., Rasche A., Ponte S., (2019), Multi-stakeholder initiatives on sustainability: A cross-disciplinary review and research agenda for business ethics, Business Ethics Quarterly, 29(3), pp. 343-383
  • Everaert P., Bouten L., Baele A., (2019), CSR website disclosure: the influence of the upper echelons, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 32(2), pp. 421-455
  • Jarvis L., Goodrick E., Hudson B. A., (2019), Where the Heart Functions Best: The Role of Suppressed Emotion in Disruptive Institutional Work, Academy of Management Journal, 62(5), pp. 1358–1387
  • Kok A., De Bakker F., Groenewegen P., (2019), Sustainability struggles: conflicting cultures and incompatible logics, Business & Society, 58(8), pp. 1496-1532
  • Laguecir A., Leca B., (2019), Strategies of visibility in contemporary surveillance settings: Insights from misconduct concealment in financial markets, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 62(July 2019), pp. 39-58
  • Maon F., Lindgreen A., (2019), Editorial: Organization and Management Paradoxes, International Journal of Management Reviews, 21(2), pp. 139-142
  • Maon F., Vanhamme J., De Roeck K., Lindgreen A., Swaen V., (2019), The dark side of stakeholder reactions to corporate social responsibility: Tensions and micro-level undesirable outcomes, International Journal of Management Reviews, 21(2), pp. 209-230
  • Mitra P., Kickul J., Gundry L., Orr J., (2019), The Rise of Hybrids: A Note for Social Entrepreneurship Educators, International Review of Entrepreneurship, 17(2), pp. 107-126
  • Petitjean M., (2019), Eco-Friendly Policies and Financial Performance: Was the Financial Crisis a Game Changer for Large US Companies?, Energy Economics, 80, pp. 502-511
  • Rieu Plichon, C., « Le manager face aux paradoxes du changement : le rôle de la capabilité négative », Revue Française de Gestion, 2019, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 105-119
  • Staessens M., Kerstens P., Bruneel J., Cherchye L., (2019), Data envelopment analysis and social enterprises: analysing performance, strategic orientation, and mission drift, Journal of Business Ethics, 159(2), pp. 325–341
  • van Hille I., De Bakker F., Ferguson J., Groenewegen P., (2019), Navigating tensions in a cross-sector social partnership: How a convener drives change for sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26(2), pp. 317-329
  • van Wijk J., Zietsma C., Dorado S., De Bakker F., Martí I., (2019), Social innovation: Integrating micro, meso and macro level insights from institutional theory, Business & Society, 58(5), pp. 887-918
  • Whelan G., De Bakker F., Den Hond F., Muthuri J., (2019), Talking the Walk: The Deflation Response to Legitimacy Challenges, M@na@gement, 22(4), pp. 633-663

  • Bayle-Cordier J., (2018), Et si on faisait pratiquer la méditation de pleine conscience aux étudiants?, <i>The Conversation France</i>, on line July 3rd 2018, pp. on line
  • Bruneel J., Clarysse B., Staessens M., Weemaes S., (2018), Breaking with the past: the need for innovation in the governance of nonprofit social enterprises, Academy of Management Perspectives, 34(2), pp. 209-225
  • De Bakker F., Crane A., Henriques I., Husted B., (2018), Editors’ insights. What makes for an exemplarary contribution? Introducing the Business & Society Best Paper Award, Business & Society, 57(7), pp. 1291-1300
  • De Colle S., O’ Brolchain F., Gordijn B., (2018), “The Ethics of Smart Stadia:  A Stakeholder Analysis of the Croke Park Project”, Science and Engineering Ethics, pp. 1-33
  • De Roeck K., Maon F., (2018), Building the theoretical puzzle of employees’ reactions to corporate social responsibility: An integrative conceptual framework and research agenda, Journal of Business Ethics, 149(3), pp. 609-625
  • El Akremi A., Gond J.-P., Swaen V., De Roeck K., Igalens J., (2018), How Do Employees Perceive Corporate Responsibility? Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Corporate Stakeholder Responsibility Scale, Journal of Management, 44(2), pp. 619-657
  • Fortis Z., Maon F., Frooman J., Reiner G., (2018), Unknown Knowns and Known Unknowns: Framing the Role of Organizational Learning in Corporate Social Responsibility Development, International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(2), pp. 277-300
  • Kickul J., Gundry L., Mitra P., Berçot L., (2018), Designing with Purpose: Advocating Innovation, Impact, Sustainability, and Scale in Social Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 1(2), pp. 205-221
  • Laurel-Fois D., (2018), Beyond Appearances: the Risk-Reducing Effects of Responsible Investment Practices, <i>Business & Society</i>, 57(5), pp. 826-682
  • Vieira da Cunha J., Carugati A., (2018), Transfiguration work and the system of transfiguration: How employees represent and misrepresent their work, MIS Quarterly, 42(3), pp. 873-894
  • Wickert C., De Bakker F., (2018), Pitching for social change: Towards a relational approach to selling and buying social issues, Academy of Management Discoveries, 4(1), pp. 50-73

  • Bayle-Cordier J., (2017), Cooperative Dynamics During the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Basque and Breton Case Studies, Non Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(3), pp. 505-524
  • de Colle S., Fassin Y., & Freeman, R. (2017), Intra-stakeholder alliances in plant-closing decisions: a stakeholder theory approach. Business Ethics: A European Review, 26(2): 97–111.
  • de Colle S., Freeman R.E., Parmar B., & de Colle L. (2017), ‘Practicing Human Dignity: Ethical Lessons from Commedia dell’Arte and Theater’. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(2): 251-262.
  • den Nieuwenboer N., Vieira da Cunha J., Trevino L., (2017), Middle Managers and Corruptive Routine Translation: The Social Production of Deceptive Performance, Organization Science, 28(5), pp. 781–803
  • Gond J.-P., El Akremi A., Swaen V., & Babu N., (2017), The psychological micro-foundations of corporate social responsibility: A person-centric systematic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(2): 225-246.
  • Hong Z., Chu C., Zhang L., Yu Y., (2017), Optimizing an emission trading scheme for local governments: A Stackelberg game model and hybrid algorithm, International Journal of Production Economics, 193, pp. 172-182
  • Janssen C., Swaen V., (2017), Inclure les publireportages aux outils de communication sur la responsabilité sociétale des entreprises, Gestion 2000, 2017/5(34), pp. 361-380
  • Janssen C., Vanhamme J., & Leblanc, S. (2017). Should luxury brands say it out loud? Brand conspicuousness and consumer perceptions of responsible luxury. Journal of Business Research, 77: 167-174
  • Maon F., Lindgreen A., & Swaen V. (2017). One vision, Different Paths: An Investigation of Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives in Europe. Journal of Business Ethics, 143(2): 405-422
  • Mitra P., Byrne J., Janssen F., (2017), Advantages of Hybrid Organising in Social Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Norway, International Review of Entrepreneurship, 15(4), pp. 519-536
  • Narvaiza L., Aragon-Amonarriz C., Iturrioz-Landart C., Bayle-Cordier J., & Stervinou S. (2017). ‘Cooperative Dynamics During the Financial Crisis: Evidence From Basque and Breton Case Studies’. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(3): 505-524.
  • Vakkayil J., (2017), Resistance and integration: Working with capitalism at its fringes, M@na@gement, 20(4), pp. 394-417

  • Bhatt M., Van Riel C. B. M., Baumann M. (2016). ‘Planned Organizational Identity Change: Insights from Practice’. In M.G. Pratt, M. Schultz, B.E. Ashforth, D. Ravasi (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Identity, Oxford, Oxford University Press: 436-454.
  • Bouten L., Hoozée S. (2016). Let’s Do It Safely: How Altrad Balliauw Developed Incentives Tailored to the Lowest Organizational Levels. Journal of Cleaner Production, 136(part A): 172-180.
  • Charry K., Tessitore T. (2016). Product Placement, Its Supporters and Detractors: A Quest for Balance. In P. De Pelsmacker (Eds.). Handbook of Research on New Advertising Formats. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley.
  • Degryse H., de Jong F., & Lefebvre J. (2016). Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity. De Economist, 164(1): 83-104.
  • De Pauw A.-S., Baert S., Deschacht N. (2016). Do Employer Preferences Contribute to Sticky Floors? Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 69(3): 714-736.
  • De Roeck K., El Akremi A., Swaen V. (2016). Consistency Matters! How and When Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect Employees’ Organizational Identification? Journal of Management Studies, 53(7): 1141-1168.
  • Mzembe A., Lindgreen A., Maon, F., Vanhamme J. (2016). ‘Investigating the drivers of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the global tea supply chain: A case study of Eastern Produce Limited in Malawi’. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 23(3): 165-178.
  • Titova Y. (2016). Are board characteristics relevant for banking efficiency? Evidence from the US. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 16(4): 655-679.
  • van Halderen M., Bhatt M., Berens G., Brown T., van Riel C. (2016), Managing Impressions in the Face of Rising Stakeholder Pressures: Examining Oil Companies’ Shifting Stances in the Climate Change Debate’. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(3): 567-582.

  • Bayle-Cordier J., Mirvis P., Moingeon B. (2015). ‘Projecting different identities: A longitudinal study of the whipsaw effects of changing leadership discourse about the triple bottom line’. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 51(3): 336-374.
  • Bouten L., Everaert P. (2015). ‘Social and environmental reporting in Belgium: ‘Pour vivre heureux, vivons cachés’. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 33(5): 24-43.
  • Bouten L., Hoozée S. (2015). ‘Challenges in Sustainability and Integrated Reporting’. Issues in Accounting Education, 30(4): 373-381.
  • Janssen C., Sen S., Bhattacharya C. (2015). ‘Corporate crises in the age of corporate social responsibility’. Business Horizons, 58(2): 183-192.
  • Janssen C., Vanhamme J. (2015). ‘Theoretical lenses for understanding the CSR-consumer paradox’. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(4): 775-787.
  • Maon F., Lindgreen A. (2015). ‘Reclaiming the child left behind: The case for corporate cultural responsibility’. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(4): 755-766.
  • Vakkayil J., Canato A., (2015), Muddling through: Searching for the ideal in the coal mining fields of Meghalaya, <i>The Extractive Industries and Society</i>, 2(3), pp. 419-425
  • Vanhamme J., Swaen V., Berens G., Janssen C. (2015). ‘Playing with fire: Aggravating and buffering effects of ex ante CSR communication campaigns for companies facing allegations of social irresponsibility’. Marketing Letters, 26(4): 565-578.

  • Baert S., De Pauw A.-S. (2014). Is ethnic discrimination due to distaste or statistics? Economics Letters, 125(2): 270-273.
  • Charry K. (2014). ‘Product placement and the promotion of healthy food to pre-adolescents: When popular TV series make carrots look cool’, International Journal of Advertising, 33(3): 599-616.
  • Charry K., De Pelsmacker, P., Pecheux, C. (2014). ‘How does perceived effectiveness affect adults’ ethical acceptance of anti-obesity threat appeals to children? When the going gets tough, the audience gets going’. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2): 243-257.
  • Charry K., Demoulin N. (2014), ‘Children’s response to co-branded products: The facilitating role of fit’. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 42(11/12): 1032-1052.
  • de Colle S., Bennett A.M. (2014). ‘State-induced, strategic, or toxic? An ethical analysis of tax avoidance practices’. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 33(1): 53-82.
  • de Colle S., Henriques A., Sarasvathy S. (2014). ‘The paradox of corporate social responsibility standards’. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2): 177-191.
  • De Roeck K., Marique G., Stinglhamber F., Swaen V., (2014). ‘Understanding employees’ responses to corporate social responsibility: Mediating roles of overall justice and organizational identification’. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(1): 91-112.
  • Hota M., Charry K. (2014). ‘The Impact of Visual and Child Oriented Packaging Elements Versus Information On Children’s Purchase Influence Across Various Age Groups’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 42(11/12): 1069-1082.
  • Janssen C., Vanhamme J., Lindgreen A., Lefebvre C. (2014). ‘The catch-22 of responsible luxury: Effects of luxury product characteristics on consumers’ perception of fit with corporate social responsibility’. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(1): 45-57.
  • Marzucco L., Marique G., Stinglhamber F., De Roeck K., Hansez I. (2014). ‘Justice and employee attitudes during organizational change: The mediating role of overall Justice’. European Review of Applied Psychology, 64(6): 289-298.